Childhood or Adolescent Anti social Behaviour

A vulnerable child interacts with his or her immediate family, environment, and peer group to develop a pattern of impulsivity, aggression, and a disregard for the feeling and rights of others. When children with these negative behavioral patterns and cognitions then develop a second tier of negative interactions through rejections by peers, teachers, and parents and especially when additional adverse life events or losses occur, even more negative behaviors ensue.

Child and adolescent antisocial behavior refers to behaviour that is not caused by mental disorder and includes isolated antisocial acts, not a pattern of behavior. This category includes many acts by children and adolescents that violates the rights of others, such as overt acts of aggression and violence and covert acts of lying, stealing, truancy, and running away from home. Certain antisocial acts such as fire setting, possession of a weapon, or a severe act of aggression toward another child, require intervention for even a single occurrence.
The emergence of occasional antisocial symptoms is common among children who have a variety of mental disorders, including psychotic disorders, depressive disorders, impulse control disorders, disruptive behaviour, and attention-deficit disorders, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and opposition defiant disorder.
Among the most common risk factors are harsh and physically abusing parenting, parental criminality, and a child’s tendency toward impulsive and hyperactive behaviour. Protective factors can attenuate the risk of antisocial behaviours by exerting an independent influence. Protective factors can include high intelligence, an easy or self-directed temperament, high level of social skill, competence in school or in other domains of artistic or athletic skill, and, finally, a strong bond with at least one parent. Additional associated features of children and adolescents with antisocial behaviour are low IQ, academic failure, and low levels of adult supervision.
If they have been poorly parented, children experience emotional deprivation, which leads to low self-esteem and unconscious anger. When children are not given any limits, their consciences are deficient because they have not internalized parental prohibitions that account for superego formation. Therefore, they have so called superego lacunae, which allow them to commit antisocial acts without guilt. At times, such children’s antisocial behaviour is a victorious source of pleasure and gratification for parents who act out their own forbidden wishes and impulses through their children.
The first step in determining the appropriate treatment for a child or an adolescent who is manifesting antisocial behaviour is to evaluate the need to treat any coexisting mental disorder that may be contributing to the antisocial behaviour. The treatment of antisocial behaviour usually involves behavioural management, which is most effective when the patient is in a controlled environment in a structured day or residential setting. In less severe situations; the child’s family members are able to manage the symptoms in collaboration with the clinician by using a cooperative behavioural program.
In some cases, special educational settings are necessary to provide the essential monitoring and feedback needed to diminish the undesired behaviours. Rewards for pro-social behaviours and positive reinforcement for the control of unwanted behaviours have merit. Medications generally are not used in patients with rare or occasional antisocial behaviours, especially when no co-morbid psychiatric disorders exist. 

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